Friday, August 7, 2015

Traditional Rug Hooking Resources: the rug hooking FAQ, updated

Blast from the past:
Look what I found!
Yesterday, I stumbled on archived versions of the rug hooking FAQ, which I created, maintained and posted to rec.crafts.textiles.misc in the mid-1990s, when Usenet groups were still a thing and rug hooking information on the internet was hard to come by. It was archived in three places:

My goal in creating the FAQ was to make basic information about the thrift-craft-turned-textile-art and its practitioners more widely available, with the hope that more people would start rug hooking. When I finished grad school and began working full-time, I was no longer able to maintain the FAQ.

In case these archives disappear (as I thought they already had), I've copied and pasted their merged contents into this blog post, and updated it where appropriate. The care-and-repair and bibliography sections are still useful, I believe. You'll find the entire FAQ after the jump.

Crossouts, square brackets for omissions of no-longer-relevant information and additions in blue text have been used to make any changes transparent. Words changed to asterisks by the archivists have been returned to the original wording whenever possible. I was especially excited to add twenty years' worth of books to the annotated bibliography, and will gradually update this post with reviews of those books. I also plan to use this information to update the Wikipedia pages on rug making and rug hooking, which like many wiki pages are lacking in research sources in their current form.

Last modified: 31 October 1995 Expires: 31 January 1996 7 August 2015
keywords: FAQ, crafts, textiles, rugs, hooked, books, suppliers, guilds, schools, care, cleaning, restoration
Part 1
I.    Introduction
      (a) Copyright Notice
      (b) Introduction
      (c) How To Retrieve This Document
      (d) Acknowledgements
      (e) Change Log
II.   Description of Traditional Rug Hooking
III.  Tips on Rug Cleaning, Care, and Restoration
IV.   Other Computer Resources
      (a) Electronic Publications
      (b) WorldWideWeb Page
      (c) Newsgroups
      (d) Design Tools
      (e) Bulletin Boards Devoted To Rug Hooking
      (f) Other Services
Part 2
V.   Annotated Bibliography
Part 3
VI.  A Hooker's Address Book
      (a) Publishers
      (b) Suppliers
      (c) Guilds and Schools
      (d) Permanent Exhibits of Hooked Rugs
      Annotated Links to Websites of Rug Hooking Magazine and Prominent Rug Hooking Guilds
      Links to Western Canadian Rug Hooking Resources
This compilation is Copyright (C) 1995 2015 by Deborah Merriam.
It may be freely redistributed in its entirety provided that all headers,
credits, and this and other disclaimers remain intact. Permission is
hereby granted for noncommercial use by electronic bulletin
board/conference systems, individuals, and libraries. Permission is
granted for this document to be made available for file transfer from
installations offering unrestricted anonymous file transfer on the
Internet. This document may not be sold for profit or incorporated in
commercial documents without the written permission of the copyright
holder. Notification of the FAQ-maintainer [by email at
of redistribution or archival of this document would be appreciated.
The information in this document is made available AS IS. No warranty is
made about its correctness or completeness.
Nothing in this article represents the views of Dalhousie University [where I was in undergrad when I began this project -ed] or The University of Alberta. [where I was in grad school -ed.]
The FAQ-maintainer (Deborah Merriam) does not receive any financial gain
or monetary remuneration from the distribution of this document.
This document was born out of my fascination with this historic art form,
and my frustration in trying to learn to hook without a teacher. I hope it
will help other novices get started without having to reinvent the wheel.
I also hope this document will be a valuable resource for veteran hookers
who are trying to find a rare material or book or the perfect design.
I'm no expert, just an enthusiastic self- and peer-taught beginner - so if you have any
additions, corrections, or suggestions for improvement to this document,
please send them to me. Future versions of this document will benefit from your wisdom! 
Please let me know how you
wish to appear in the Acknowledgements (by name only, name and email,name
and city, name and snail-mail, or some combination of the above). [The Acknowledgements have been removed, since they were mostly for outdated information that has also been removed, and book reviews by other contributors have been credited by name. - ed.]
Happy hooking! =)          Deborah Merriam
(c) HOW TO RETRIEVE THIS DOCUMENT (d) Acknowledgements (e) Change Log
[information in sections c, d, e omitted as no longer relevant -ed.]

So, what is "traditional" rug hooking? Traditional hooking uses a
hand hook, similar in shape to a crochet hook, to form a looped
pile from fabric strips or yarn on an even-weave base (such as
burlap, monks-cloth, divider cloth, or linen). This technique isn't
only used to create rugs, of course; you can also make chair seats,
wall hangings, trivets, Christmas tree ornaments, carpetbags,
clothing, and jewelry, among many other things. I've
designated it as "traditional" to keep confusion at bay, since
the use of latch-hooks, punch-needles, or speed hooks is also
commonly called "rug hooking". Punch-needle hooking and speed
hooking also form rug piles from the running loop stitch, and are
sometimes mentioned in the same reference books and supplied by
the same companies as traditional hand hooking - so, if you are
interested in these newer techniques, you may also find a
starting point in this document. Latch hooks form a knotted pile,
and will not be discussed in this document.

A description here of how to hook would probably only confuse, so
I'll refer you to any of the excellent reference books listed in section
IV. However, the guidance of a good teacher can be invaluable in
preventing you from forming bad habits. Contact your local shop
or guild (listed in section V) to find a teacher or group you can hook
with and get tips from. Many shops and guilds hold informal
hook-ins, or know of them. If no local resources are listed, try
writing to contacting one of the "International" guilds for help - they have
branches all over the world, and keep lists of teachers.
Personally, I have found that hooking regularly with an informal
group has vastly improved my technique and allowed me to learn a
great deal (as opposed to hooking by myself and getting hung up on
every possible problem ;).


     I decided to include this section in light of the number of
requests for such information I have received. These tips are
compiled as a public service from a number of sources, including
books written or edited by Alice Beatty and Mary Sargent, Thom
Boswell, Happy and Steve DiFranza, Pat Hornafius, Leslie Linsley
and Jon Aron, and Stella Hay Rex. As always, I invite your
comments and suggestions.
Most importantly, please remember that your rug is only as strong
as its foundation. Burlap [aka jute] loses strength as it ages, is
susceptible to extremes in temperature, and weakens when it's
wet. Linen and cotton are sturdier. However, the tips that follow
will assume your rug has a burlap backing. If you treat your rug
as lovingly as it was made, it should last for generations!

- DON'T fold your rug; DO roll it with the pile on the *outside*.
This prevents cracking or stretching the fragile backing fabric.
- DON'T wrap your rug in plastic, as any trapped condensation
leads to mildew. DO wrap it in a sheet or cloth or heavy
acid-free paper. DON'T fasten tightly with rubber bands or the

- DON'T place your rug in high traffic areas that will soil and
strain your rug's fibres past their limits.
- DO place a thin pad under your rug to help extend its' life. It
should be cut 1/2 inch inside the rug's edges. You can buy such
pads from your supplier. One book claims that fibre pads absorb
moisture over time, and recommends a synthetic pad instead.  
- DON'T paint a latex backing on the back of an heirloom rug. In
time the latex will harden and crack, and the rug will be
destroyed. In a letter to Rug Hooking magazine (Vol.5, No.5,
Mar-May 1994, p.10), Jim Beasley of The Ruggery writes, "The
first thing I tell a customer who comes to my shop for a repair
is that if we touch a rug with latex, we reduce its value by half
as an antique. If the rug is of museum quality, I send my
customer to someone whose business is rug restoration. However,
if the rug is of sentimental value only and the burlap backing is
five minutes away from total disintegration, why not "fix" it
with latex and use it for another 15 or 20 years...?"

- Changes in humidity and temperature cause the fibres in a rug
to shrink or swell slightly, and the rug must give to accommodate
this. Consequently, DON'T stretch a rug tightly, as
you would stretch a canvas, and DON'T staple, nail, or glue your
rug to a frame or board.
- DON'T place a rug behind glass or plastic. If condensation
should be trapped inside the frame, your rug will be ruined by
- If you mat and frame a rug, use only acid-free mats. Use quilt
batting on acid-free mounting boards if padding is desired. If
your frame is wood, be sure it's covered with mylar (a pH-neutral
- DO evenly distribute the weight of a rug that is used as a wall
hanging, so it won't sag and strain the backing. Two techniques
follow which will avoid undue strain on any section of the rug:
(1) Sew a cuff of fabric or rug tape to the top finished edge of
the rug. Slip a dowel or drapery rod through this sleeve. Use
drapery fasteners, cup hooks, or bent nails to attach the rod to
the wall.
(2) Sew velcro on three sides, leaving the bottom open. Tack or
glue the opposite velcro strips to a frame made to fit the size
of the rug. Press the rug onto the frame by applying gentle
pressure. Do not stretch the rug too tightly!  

- DON'T shake or beat your rug. This strains the backing, and an
old rug might disintegrate in your hands.
- DO air your rug outdoors occasionally, especially on damp,
foggy days. This will make a dry burlap backing less brittle.
- VACUUMING - Sand and grit will grind down the pile of your rug
and weaken its foundation. Some books forbid vacuuming delicate
antique rugs, while others say that gentle suction (with the
upholstery attachment of a canister-type vacuum or a hand vacuum)
is okay for any rug. Also, occasionally place your rug face down
and pat it (or sweep it) to dislodge grit which has fallen
between the loops.
- Some books suggest placing your rugs face down on newly fallen
powdery snow, then brushing the snow off, claiming that the
moisture makes the burlap less brittle and brightens the colours;
others call this method "an old wives' tale".

- DO remove stains immediately. Blot LIQUIDS firmly with towels.
If necessary, sponge the area gently with cold water; if the
stain persists, you can try blotting with a mild solution of cold
water and white vinegar or household ammonia or fresh milk. Gently
lift SOLIDS out of the fibres, perhaps by spot vacuuming as you
loosen the particles with a knife.
- DON'T immerse your rug, because some backings will fall apart
in water.
- DO gently wash the *surface* of the rug using a mild detergent
in cold water. Whip up the foam, gently moisten the spot, and rub
very gently to dislodge the dirt. Use a cloth or sponge dipped in
clear water to remove the foam. Don't soak it!  Blot dry. This
method may also be used to surface clean an entire rug. Be sure
to overlap sections so you won't leave dirt rings. Also, work
quickly so that the foundation won't get wet and any insecure
colours won't have a chance to bleed.
- DETERGENTS - Harsh commercial rug cleaners may damage the
fibres and set a stain. Ordinary household detergents are usually
highly alkaline, contain fillers and brighteners which damage
textiles, and leave a residue. One book recommends that you use
sodium lauryl sulphate, an extremely mild detergent with a
neutral pH which rinses freely and leaves no residue. It's
commonly used by textile conservationists, and is sold at tack
shops as a horse shampoo (Orvus WA Paste). The book recommends a
solution of 1 teaspoon of Orvus WA Paste in 1 quart of water.
Another book suggests that you use a new product designed
specifically for cleaning hooked rugs called Heirloom Care.
- DON'T wring the rug or hang it to dry. DO roll the rug (pile
side out) in a heavy towel to absorb the moisture, then lay it
flat to dry in a shaded area, or away from direct heat.
- ABSOLUTELY DO NOT give your rug to a dry cleaner if it's
desperately filthy. The harsh chemicals and rough handling used
by conventional dry cleaners are likely to destroy your rug.
INSTEAD find a company that specializes in cleaning *hooked* rugs
(even companies who regularly clean antique oriental woven rugs
may not know how to treat a hooked rug).  

- Please find a qualified expert to at least assess an antique
rug's condition for you (Your local guild or supplier can
probably recommend someone). If your rug is particularly delicate,
you would be wise to trust a professional to clean it, restore it,
and mount it for you. Restorers often must start by
removing previous repairs.
- Remember that "a stitch in time saves nine", and mend damage to
your rugs immediately. If you match your colours carefully and
use as much of the original material as possible, your repairs
should be hard to spot. If you save your notes and extra material
when you've finished hooking a rug, you'll make its repair much
- If a few loops have been pulled out by a pet, just hook them
back in place or hook new ones to match.
- If the backing has a weak spot or has been cut, unravel some
threads from a matching backing material, and darn them back into
the weave and rehook the loops. (You may wish to reinforce this
with some diluted white glue.)
- If the backing has a hole in it, sew on a patch of monks-cloth
by hand. First, rip out the pile an inch around the hole. Use a
patch that's a little bigger than the hole to be covered, and sew
it securely to the underside of the foundation using heavy-duty
thread. Stitch down the frayed backing to the patch on the top
side of the rug, then rehook the area using the wool you pulled
out or matching strips.
- Hold your antique rug up to the light. If it's filled with
holes, it may have dry rot - in which case it will eventually
fall apart. One book suggests that such rugs are "impossible" to
fix. Other books suggest that you line the entire rug with
monks-cloth. Cut the new backing slightly larger than the rug,
and stitch it to the old backing at intervals to hold them
together evenly; turn the edges of the lining under when sewing
to the rug's edge. Wherever there's a break, remove the loose
loops, stitch the frayed backing to the lining, and rehook.
- If your rug has frayed edges, remove the binding and the loose
loops, attach a new backing as above, and rehook and rebind the
- If the binding is worn, a new binding can be sewn over the old
one. Use two-inch wide binding tape, as close to the border
colour as possible, and strong thread. Sew the new binding to the
rug through the wool loops on the top side, at least a
quarter-inch back from the edge, with your stitches close
together. Ease the binding around corners smoothly. Sew the
binding in place on the underside. The completed bound edge
showing on the right side of the rug should be about a half-inch
- One book suggests that rugs with full linings are best used as
wall hangings, because the lining will catch soil and wear
against the loops inside if the rug is underfoot. 

[This section deleted as no longer relevant. - ed.]

These books fall into three main categories: How-To, Design Inspiration,
and History. I've included any reference books I could find, even ones I
didn't like, with the reasoning that it may be perfect for your purposes.
The annotations list features of the book, and are liberally sprinkled
with the opinions of the reviewers. I have not annotated books which have
not been reviewed by myself or another FAQ contributor. I've put an
asterisk beside my favourites and the "industry standards" (found in
Suggested Reading lists in other books). They're organized alphabetically
by author or editor. All opinions are mine, unless otherwise noted.
Please note that this list is NOT complete - there are certainly, for
example, many booklets and manuals on dyeing that are missing. 
Instructional videos are also not listed. If you run
across a book that I've missed, or have comments on the ones I've included
("This book has a great section on X techniques," or "I found these
directions very easy/difficult to follow," or "Please remove this useless
thing from the list"), please write to me and tell me all about it!

Adrosko, Rita J. Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing: A Practical Guide With Over
150 Recipes. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY. 1971. ISBN
0-486-22688-3. (Originally published in 1968 as United States National
Museum Bulletin 281, "Natural Dyes in the United States").
     This book contains excellent historical information (focussed on the
practices of European settlers in the U.S.), a section on colour theory,
and clearly written instructions for dyeing both wool and cotton using
natural dyestuffs.
Allen, Max. Rags To Riches - Canadian Hooked Rugs. 1978.
Allen, Edith Louise. Rugmaking Craft. Manual Arts Press, Peoria, Illinois.
Ashworth, Anne. Chroma-Craft. 1971.
     Booklet of formulas for dyeing transitional swatches, i.e. from a
dark shade of one dye to a light shade of another, and for dyeing
Ashworth, Anne and Armstrong, Jean. Green Mountain Colours. Green Mountain
Rug School, Randolf Center, VT. 1985, 1989.
Bartlett, Marlene and Baker/Dykens, Barbara. Nova Scotia Formula Book.
(Booklet of formulas for Majic Carpet dyes.)
* Batchelder, Martha R. The Art of Hooked-Rug Making. Manual Arts Press,
Peoria, Illinois. 1947. reprinted, 1983, Down East Books, Camden, Maine.
ISBN 0-89272-138-3.
     The author encourages readers to design their own rugs, and gives
excellent and practical advice on designing rugs with traditional motifs.
The book also contains a number of suggested projects for beginners, set
up in Lessons instead of chapters. The age of the book shows in the
suggested colour combinations and in the writing style.

Bawden, Juliet. Rag Rug Inspirations: New Designs for Traditional Techniques. Cassell. 1996.

Beatty, Alice and Sargent, Mary. The Hook Book. Stackpole Books. 1977.
* Beatty, Alice and Sargent, Mary. Basic Rug Hooking, 2nd Ed. (First
published as The Hook Book) Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 1990.
     A great book of help for learning to hook rugs in the primitive
style. Some good information on dyeing. Especially great advice on hooking
various motifs and working with reclaimed woolens.  Peggy Struwe writes,
"As a beginner, I found this book very good ... Although, I think more
advanced hookers would like the pictures, patterns, and dye information."
Beitler, Ethel Jane. Create With Yarn: Hooking Stitchery. International
Textbook Company, Scranton, PA. 1964.
        This book contains a thorough chapter on traditional and
punch-hooking using yarn, and a fun chapter on design inspiration, in
addition to chapters on embroidery, applique, tapestry, and knotted
(latch-hook) rugmaking techniques.
Beitler, Ethel Jane. Hooked and Knotted Rugs. Sterling Publishing Co. 1973.
Bethco Productions. Primitive rug hooking made easy [video]. Bethco
Productions, Livonia, MI. 1990.
Betterton, Sheila. Rugs from The American Museum In Britain. The American
Museum in Britain, Bath, England. 1981. ISBN 0-9504971-6-9.
        This small volume includes a short description and excellent
history of the various historic rugmaking techniques, with a long section
on hooked rugs. This is followed by colour photos of the rugs in the
museum's collection, the majority of which are hooked.
Bishop, Robert and Secord, William. Quilts, Coverlets, Rugs and Samplers.
Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 1982.

Black, Elizabeth. Hooked On The Wild Side: Everything You Need To Know To Hook Realistic Animals. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2004.

Blake Gray, Diana. Traditional Shirred and Standing Wool Rugs. 2009.
* Blumenthal, Betsy and Kreider, Kathryn. Hands on Dyeing. Interweave
Press, Loveland, CO. 1988.
* Boswell, Thom (Ed.). The Rug Hook Book. Lark Books/Sterling Publishing
Co., New York, NY. 1992.
     One of my favourites. This book contains a gallery of contemporary
artists with gorgeous colour plates, an excellent section on techniques, a
number of projects, and an appendix of patterns taken from the books of
Kent, Kopp & Kopp, and McGown. Jill Minehart writes, "I especially liked
the section where individual hookers "speak" and some of their work is
shown." Cheryl Kellman adds, "The benefit of this book is the wide range
of classic charts....  I love this book and will definitely keep it in my
permanent collection."
Bowles, Ella Shannon. Homespun Handicrafts. J.B.Lippincott, Philadelphia.
Bowles, Ella Shannon. Handmade Rugs. Garden City Publishing Company, Inc.,
New York, NY. 1937. Little, Brown & Company, Boston, MA. 1927.
     This wide-ranging book is primarily about traditional rug-hooking,
but it also has chapters on braided, plaited, knit, crochet, patchwork,
button, cross-stitch, woven, and embroidered rug-making. In the chapters
about hooked rugs, there's information on history, designs, colour
schemes, natural dyeing, how to hook, and collecting. If you're interested
in natural dyes, or you're a history buff, this is a great book.
Boyle. Designing for Traditional Rug Hooking.
Boyle, Joan. The Dye Manual. Self-published (P.O. Box 1162, Prescott, ON,
CANADA, K0E 1T0), 1983.
     This booklet was recommended to me as a great collection of dyeing
techniques. It contains an introduction to colour theory, information on
Cushing Perfection Dyes, and a wide assortment of techniques. It's
well-organized and easy to follow, and the author cites other booklets for
more information on each technique.
Brescia, Laverne E. Scrolls Are Easy. 1964. Republished 2014.
     Booklet of formulas for coathanger dyeing (a method for dip dyeing).
Brown, Barbara Evans. Preserving The Past In Primitive Rugs. 1999.
Burton, Mary Sheppard. Educational Standards for Traditionally Hooked
Work. Self-published (21600 Davis Mill Rd., Germantown, MD 20874), 1977.
Burton, Mary Sheppard. Judging By Merit. 1977.
Buttler, Pris. Basic Design & Drawing Techniques. 2000.
Buttler, Pris. Easy Lettering Tips. 2000.
* The Canadian Museum of Carpets and Textiles. (1) Hooked Rugs: A Canadian
Tradition. [exhibition catalogue] The Canadian Museum of Carpets and
Textiles, Toronto, ON. 1975. (Max Allen and Simon Waegemaekers, curators;
first shown at Ottawa Public Library, July 2-30, 1975 as part of Festival
Canada) (2) Canadian Hooked Rugs: 2 November 1977 to 29 January 1978,
McCord Museum. [exhibition catalogue] McCord Museum, Montreal, PQ. 1977.
(Max Allen, guest curator)
     Short and sweet!  Both booklets are brimming with black-and-white
photos, charming quotes and anecdotes from secondary sources, and
scholarly historical discussion with a Canadian bent.  Did you know that
Emily Carr hooked rugs?  Well, now you do.
Cann, Ramona. A Notebook For Primitive Rug Hooking. 2013.
Carlson, Helen G. The Technique of Rug Hooking. (around 1950) 1951.
Carroll, Barbara and Emma Lou Lais. America Primitive Hooked Rugs. 1999.
Carroll, Barbara with Susan Huxley. The Secrets of Primitive Hooked Rugs. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2004.
Carroll, Barbara. Woolley Fox American Folk Art Rug Hooking: 18 Folk Art Projects with Rug-Hooking Basics, Tips & Techniques. Landauer Co. 2005.
Carter, Judy. Hooking Animals: How to Bring Animals to Life in Wool Rugs. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2014.
Casselman, Karen Leigh. Craft of the Dyer.
     A great book on natural dyes.

Charleson, Connie. Rug Hookers Dye Manual. Privately published (9920
Weiskopf Dr., New Port Richey, FL 34655), 1974.
     Contains clear instructions for dyeing swatches by the jar- dyeing
technique, 60 formulas using Cushing's dyes, and advice on shading flowers
with charts and colour sketches.
* Chiasson, Anselme (Ed.) The History of Cheticamp Hooked Rugs and their
Artisans. Lescarbot Publications, Yarmouth, NS. 1988. ISBN 0-921443-11-0.
(researched by Annie-Rose Deveau and translated by Marcel LeBlanc; a
project of La Societe Saint-Pierre de Cheticamp).
     A warm and unique history, if eccentric (Father Chiasson leans a bit
heavily on religious anecdotes). Short on technical information (the
hookers of Cheticamp have trade secrets to protect, after all), but the
photos are lovely.
Close, Lesley Mary. Hooked Rug Storytelling: The Art of Heather Ritchie. Schiffer Publishing. 2011.
Collins Barile, Mary. Hooked Rugs of the Midwest: A Handcrafted History. 2013.
Coss, Melinda and Soudan, Sylvie. Magic Carpets. William Collins Sons &
Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 1989.
     Contains 30 designs with colour photos, meant for latch-hooking or
cross-stitch but easily adaptable. No mention of traditional hand hooking.
Cheryl Kellman writes, " This book mainly concentrates on design rather
than technique.  I find it very inspirational and colorful."
Coughlin, Linda Rae. Art Rugs. 2004.
Coughlin, Linda Rae. Contemporary Hooked Rugs. 2007.
Coughlin, Linda Rae. Modern Hooked Rugs. 2007.
Cox, Clarisse. see: McLain, Clarisse Cox.
Cox, Verna. Rug Hooking & Braiding Made Easy. Cox Enterprises. 2003.
Cox, Verna and Moshimer, Joan. Hooking And Braiding (video). Cox
Enterprises, Bucksport, ME. 1993.
Craig, Catherine M.. Rug Hooking: Here's How - Lesson Outlines. First edition 1946, revised editions reprinted by W. Cushing & Co. 
Cross, Pat. Purely Primitive: Hooked Rugs from Wool, Yarn, and Homespun Scraps. Martingale & Co. 2003.
Cross, Pat. Simply Primitive: Rug Hooking, Punchneedle, and Needle Felting. That Patchwork Place. 2006.
Crouse, Gloria E. Hooking Rugs: New materials, new techniques (book and
companion video). Taunton Press, Newtown, CT. 1990.
     In the video, she discusses various techniques and materials, shows
two projects, and shows a sampler of her finished pieces. The book has a
nice photo gallery, in addition to the how-to stuff. She doesn't use a
hand hook - her interest is in speed needles and punch needles - but her
approach to using off-beat materials may appeal to hand hook users as
well.  I'd advise against painting latex on the back of your rugs like she
does (see section III).
Cuyler, Susanna. The High-Pile Rug Book. Harper & Row, Publishers, New
York, NY. 1974.
     Describes many different methods of hooking (hand, latch-hook, punch
needle, shuttle hook, speed hooks, etc.).
Darr, Tara. Wool Rug Hooking. Krause Publishing. 2005.
Davies, Ann. Rag Rugs. Henry Holt & Company Inc., New York, NY. 1992.
     Contains a nice techniques section and lots of pretty photos, and
instructions for 12 projects. She mostly focuses on hand hooking, but
other rug making techniques are also used.
Davies, Ann and Emma Tennant. Hooked Rugs. 1995.
de Roos, Claire. How to Dye for Stained Glass Effect.
* DiFranza, Happy and DiFranza, Steve. Hooking Fine Gifts. Stackpole
Books, Harrisburg, PA. 1992.
     Contains an excellent how-to section, 16 projects with colour photos,
a glossary, and a list of suppliers.
Dufresne, Gail. Geometric Hooked Rugs: Color and Design. Stackpole Press. 2010.
Dunn, Adele. How To Design Your Own Rug-Hooking Patterns.
Eaton, Allen H. Handicrafts of New England. Harper, New York, NY. 1949.
Eaton, Doris. A Lifetime of Rug-Hooking. Nimbus Publishing. 2011.
Eberlein, Harold Donaldson and McClure, Abbot. Practical Book of Early
American Arts and Crafts. 1916.
Ebi, Dotti. Scraps or Spots: 115 Formulas For Rug Hooking. Self-published
(501 Kingsbury, Dearborn, MI 48128). 1979.
     Clearly written instructions and Cushing's Perfection dye formulas
for overdyeing and spot-dyeing reclaimed woolens or leftover fabrics.
Edmonton Branch, Alberta Handicrafts Guild. Forever Hooked: Traditional Rug Hooking. 1990.

Elliot, Jane. Color Flow.
     Booklet of formulas for dyeing transitional swatches, i.e. from a
dark shade of one dye to a light shade of another.
Fallier, Jeanne H. Traditional Rug Hooking Manual. The Rugging Room,
Westford, MA. 1983.
Felcher, Cecilia. The Complete Book of Rug Making: Folk Methods and Ethnic
Designs. Hawthorne Books, Inc., New York, NY. 1975.
     Contains a chapter on hooked rugs, along with many other rugmaking
techniques, and a chapter on dyeing. The chapter on hooked rugs introduces
the use of hand hooks, punch hooks, and speed hooks, but doesn't discuss
any of them thoroughly. Contains a number of charted designs.
Feller, Susan. Design Basics for Rug Hookers. Stackpole Press. 2010.
Femiano, Ellen. Ellen's "No Sweat" Dyeing or Simplified Quantity Dyeing.
Self-published (Folk Art Studio, 6052 Cedar Wood Dr., Columbia, MD
21044), 1991.
      According to the ads, this booklet compiles and standardizes the
formulas from ten other dyeing booklets.
* Field, Jeanne. Shading Flowers: The Complete Guide for Rug Hookers. 1991.
Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 1991. ISBN 0-8117-3081-6.
      Boy, am I impressed! This book includes chapters on basic technique
and equipment, shading techniques, dyeing techniques often used for floral
rugs (swatches, dip-dyeing, spot-dyeing, and background dyeing) with
formulas for dyeing a bunch of gorgeous flower colours using Cushing's
dyes, drying and pressing flowers to use for inspiration, and other
helpful hints.  But the bulk of the book is devoted to the flowers
themselves, arranged alphabetically from Anemone to Violet.  For each
flower, the author gives a little background information, describes its
shape and colouration, and gives clear instructions for how to hook it
with the aid of excellent shaded and numbered diagrams.  If you're
yearning to try a finely shaded floral rug, this is the book for you!
* Fischer, Jeanne. Dye Reference Cross Index. privately published, 1983.
     One easy way to achieve colour harmony in a rug is to use a group of
dye formulas that share a common dye. According to a review in "The Rug
Hooker, News & Views", the author has compiled a list of formulas from
common dye books and sorted them by dyes used. Sounds terrific!
Fitzpatrick, Deanne. East Coast Rug-Hooking Designs: New Patterns from an Old Tradition. Nimbus Publishing. 2006.

Fitzpatrick, Deanne. Hooking Mats and Rugs: 33 New Designs from an Old Tradition. Creative Publishing. 2008.
Fitzpatrick, Deanne. Hook Me A Story: the History and Method of Rug Hooking in Atlantic Canada. Nimbus Publishing. 1999.
Fitzpatrick, Deanne. Inspired Rug-Hooking: Turning Atlantic Canadian Life Into Art. Nimbus Publishing. 2011.
Fitzpatrick, Deanne with Susan Huxley. The Secrets of Planning and Designing Hand-Hooked Rugs. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2005.
Fitzpatrick, Deanne. Simply Modern: Contemporary Designs for Hooked Rugs. Nimbus Publishing. 2015.
Fleming, Edna. (1) 101 Formulas for Casserole Dyeing, 1965. (2) Spray
Fretz. Hooking Rugs.

Gallant-Simpson, Cynthia. Colors To Dye For: A Primitive Rug Hooker's Philosophy and Dyeing Primer. 2011.
Grice, Doris. How to Dye for the Rug Hooking Craft.
     Booklet of formulas for dyeing transitional swatches, i.e. from a
dark shade of one dye to a light shade of another.
Haight, Dorothy. Oriental Dye Formulas. Self-published (P.O. Box 959,
Picton, ON, CANADA, K0K 2T0).
Hallen, Julienne. Folk Art Designs. 1949.
Halliwell, Jane. The Pictorial Rug (5th Ed.). 2000.
Halliwell Green, Jane. Pictorial Hooked Rugs. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2009.
Halliwell Green, Jane. Rugs In Bloom: Shading Flowers in Hooked Rugs. Stackpole Press. 2012.
Hansen, Jacqueline. For the Joy of Hooking. (video) Jacqueline Designs,
Scarborough, ME. 1990.
Hansen, Jacqueline. Flowers, Leaves, and Scrolls. 1995.
Hansen, Jacqueline. Sculptured Rugs In Waldoboro Style. 2007.
Hicks, Amy Mali. The Craft of Hand-Made Rugs. 1914. Empire State Book
Company, New York, NY. 1936.
Hicks, Lydia. Triple Over Dye, Books I and II. (booklets of dyeing
formulas and techniques). Privately published (The Triple Over Dye Family,
187 Jane Dr., Syracuse, NY 13219).
* Hornafius, Pat. Country Rugs: How To Design and Hook Traditional Wool
Rugs and Hangings. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 1992. ISBN
     Contains excellent advice on design and technique, a section on rug
care and supply sources, and 14 patterns with colour photos. Focuses on
primitive hooking. The advice she gives on cleaning, repairing, and
hanging your rugs is especially good. My only complaints are that she uses
salt and vinegar simultaneously in her dyeing (which will form
hydrochloric acid that will weaken the fabric), and she has a wee tendency
to underestimate the savvy of rural folk ("All these effects were
unintentional, I'm sure..."). The author also has made how-to videos on
hooking and dyeing, which are available from her shop.
Hornafius, Pat. Victorian Cottage Rugs:  How to Hook 16 Traditional
Patterns. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 1995.
Hrkman, Donna. Rug Hooker's Companion. Stackpole Press. 2012.
Hrkman, Donna. Creative Techniques for Rug Hookers. Stackpole Press. 2015.
Hubbard, Claire. Making Rag Rugs. Storey Publishing. 2002.
Johnson, B., Lavitt, W., and Anderson, A. American Classics: Hooked Rugs
from the Barbara Johnson Collection. (exhibition catalogue) Squibb
Gallery, NJ. 1988.
Johnson, Mary Elizabeth. Rugs. Oxmoor House Inc., Birmingham, England.
     Contains a chapter on hand hooking, among many other rug-making
Kelley, Hazel Reeder. ABC of Rug Making. 1947 pamphlet.
* Kent, William Winthrop. (1) The Hooked Rug. Tudor Publishing, New York.
1937. Reprint: Gale Research, Detroit. 1971. (2) Rare Hooked Rugs. The
Pond-Ekberg Company, Springfield, Mass. 1941. (3) Hooked Rug Design. The
Pond-Ekberg Company, Springfield, Mass. 1949. (4) A Primer of Hooked Rug
Design. 1941 pamphlet.
     Kent's theories regarding the origin of rug hooking were embraced at
the time and are still widely quoted in some histories. He developed his
theories on the history of rug hooking in (1), based on his correspondence
with some charming English aquain tances (who naturally assumed that the
craft had originated there) and on the examples of old rugs which he had
catalogued (many of which are yarn-sewn, not hooked, and most of which
were grossly misdated, according to today's experts). Today, the experts
seem to agree that hooking arose in New England or Atlantic Canada, and
reject Kent's shaky evidence for a European origin. (It kind of bugs me
that these theories were so influential - as if a European origin gave rug
hooking a legitimacy that it couldn't hope to attain as a Colonial
handcraft, or as if the colonists couldn't have been ingenious enough to
come up with the technique themselves! How insulting!)
     Speculation aside, these books are a fun read (lots of cool
anecdotes), and a great source of design inspiration, with photos and
sketches in both colour and black & white. Kent includes advice on how to
hook, rug collecting, and rug cleaning in (1); in (2), he focuses on
historic designs; and (3) contains a large section of his own impressive
* Ketchum, William C. Hooked Rugs: a historical and collector's guide: how
to make your own. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, NY. 1976. ISBN
     Overall, this is an *excellent* book. It contains: a wide- ranging
history of rug hooking, with lots of region-specific information (although
I noticed some small blunders for the Canadian info - Garretts only opened
a branch in Massachusetts, rather than moving there, and the Acadians of
Cheticamp would be very offended to be called Quebecois!); information on
types of designs, and excellent advice for collectors; a section of
techniques (primarily punch-needle, with a very brief mention of the
traditional hook) by Richard Flynn; a photo gallery of rugs; and a gallery
of patterns taken from antique rugs. If you have a history bug (like me),
you're starting a collection, or you find inspiration in antique designs,
this book is for you!
King, Mrs. Harry. How To Hook Rugs. Baker & Taylor, New York, NY. 1948.
The Author, Batesville, Arkansas. 1949.
Koehler, Doris H. Color & Contour For Hooked Rugs.
* Kopp, Joel and Kopp, Kate. American Hooked and Sewn Rugs: Folk Art
Underfoot. E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., New York, NY. 1st edition, 1975. 2nd
edition, revised and enlarged, 1985.
     Wow. This book is lavishly illustrated, and knowledgeably discusses
hooked rugs as a folk art, with relatively unbiased historical notes. It
also contains a great bibliography for you history buffs, and a short
section on how to hook and how to care for your rugs.
Krull, Betty with Susan Huxley. The Secrets of Color in Hand-Hooked Rugs. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2004.
Ladd, Sarah. Dyeing To Hook. 1996.
Lais, Emma Lou and Barbara Carroll. Antique Colors For Primitive Rugs: Formulas Using Cushing's Acid Dyes. 1996.
Lambert, Patricia, Staepelaere, Barbara, and Fry, Mary G. Color and Fiber.
Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Westchester, PA. 1986.
Landreau, A. America Underfoot. Smithsonian. 1976.
Langenberg, Ella. Stitching, Crocheting and Hooked Rug Making. Holden, New
York, NY. 1941.
Laverty, Paula. Silk Stocking Mats: Hooked Mats of the Grenfell Mission. 2005.
* Lawless, Dorothy. Rug Hooking and Braiding for Pleasure and Profit. Thomas
Y. Crowell Company, New York, NY. 1952. Revised edition, 1962.
     What a classic! This little book is packed with helpful hints for
everyone from beginner to teacher - with excellent notes on dyeing,
designing, hooking pictorials, hooking fruit and flowers and leaves and
scrolls, colour planning, rug care, marketing rugs, and teaching classes.
There are also excellent how-to chapters on planning and braiding rugs or
rug borders, and the revised edition includes additional chapters with
hints on trends, dye techniques, and project ideas popular at that time.
The photos are all black-and-white.
Lawrence, Evelyn and Kathy Wright. Rug Hooking Traditions with Magdalena Briner Eby. Self-published. 2011.

Lincoln, Maryann. Comprehensive Dyeing Guide. 2005.
* Linsley, Leslie and Aron, Jon. Hooked Rugs: An American Folk Art.
Clarkson N. Potter, New York, NY. 1992.
     Contains a short history of the craft (well done, but with a definite
American focus), a how-to section (a little sketchy), information on
collecting and caring for hooked rugs, a huge photo gallery, and a
resource directory (including consultants and dealers). It's a nice
introduction to the craft, but the text is written primarily from the
perspective of a collector. I'm recommending this book purely on the
strength of the exquisite, inspirational colour photos - it's a visual
feast. Jill Minehart (who recently started a collection of antique hooked
rugs) writes, "I was especially intrigued by the photographs of the
collection... and I was more interested in the information on collecting
than I would have been otherwise."
Littenberg, Anne-Marie. Hooked Rug Portraits. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2011.
Littenberg, Anne-Marie. Hooked Rug Landscapes. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2009.
Logsdon, Roslyn. People & Places. Rug Hooking Magazine. 1998.
Lovelady, Donna. Rug Hooking for the First Time. Sterling/Chapelle. 2003.
MacKay, Mary, Robbins, Arlene, and Newhall, Sally. Multi-Dye.
     Instructions on painted, dip, gradation, clothespin, and casserole
Majic Carpet Dyes. Pure Majic. (booklet of dye formulas).
Marinoff, Kathryn Andrews. Getting Started in Handmade Rugs. Bruce
Publishing Company. Revision of "Handmade Rugs". The Bruce Publishing
Company, New York, NY. Collier-Macmillan Limited, London, England. 1957,
        This book contains chapters on traditional and punch-hooked rugs
in addition to knotted, woven, plaited (braided), crocheted, shirred, and
embroidered rugs. There is also a chapter devoted to the care, cleaning,
and repair of all these types of rugs.
Martin, Hazel and Riley, Les. A Great Little Book On How To Hook.
Self-published (RFD #3, Box 695, Williamston, NC 27892).
Mather, Anne D. The Art of Rug Hooking. Sterling Publishing. 1998.

Mather, Anne D. Creative Rug Hooking. Sterling Publishing. 2000.
Matthews, Janet. Triple Over Dye, Book III. (booklet of dyeing formulas
and techniques). Privately published (The Triple Over Dye Family, 187 Jane
Dr., Syracuse, NY 13219).
McDermet, Kris, Christine Manges, and Dianne Tobias. Combining Rug Hooking & Braiding: Basics, Borders, & Beyond. Schiffer Publishing. 2011.
* McGown, Pearl Kinnear. (1) The Dreams Beneath Design. Bruce Humphries
Co. Inc., 1939 (a historical survey of early hooked rugs and their
makers). (2) You Can Hook Rugs. Lincoln House, 1951. (3) Dye Dabbler
     Mrs. McGown holds a place of honour in the history and development of
the craft through her designs and her teaching network, and her books are
thought of as bibles in many circles. Those books which we've reviewed
follow in separate entries. Books we haven't reviewed yet are listed
above. In addition to her books, the following pamphlets were once
- So You Want To Hook A Rug!
- Dye Pamphlet (beginner's dye instructions)
- The Rainbow In Rags (complete instructions for dyeing)
- The Gist Of Geometrics (similar in style to Persian Patterns, reviewed
- Objectives In Orientals (also similar in style to Persian Patterns)
- Helpful Hints On Hooked Rugs ( also similar in style to Persian Patterns)
- Pick And Choose (unillustrated descriptive list of her rug designs)
- Petites For Practice (descriptive list of her small project designs)
- Color Course (a correspondence course on dyeing and colour planning)
- Training For Teachers
McGown, Pearl Kinnear. Color In Hooked Rugs. The Author, West
Boylston, Mass. 1954 .
        This book contains a very thorough discussion of colour theory and
its application to rug hooking.  Mrs. McGown also gives specific advice on
dyeing for backgrounds, scrolls, leaves, flowers, geometrics, and
orientals, and advice on balancing the various elements against each
other, accompanied by the discussion of many photographed examples.  This
is not a beginner's book:  with my own limited dyeing experience, I found
it rather intense and overwhelming.  However, I imagine it would be an
invaluable reference for more experienced hookers.

McGown, Pearl Kinnear. Persian Patterns. Pearl K. McGown, Inc., West
Boylston, Mass. 1958.
        In this pamphlet, Mrs. McGown gives general advice on colour
planning in oriental-design rugs, discusses specific colour plans for
several Persian-inspired patterns from her collection with the aid of
black-and-white photos, and gives advice on hooking specific motifs
(scrolls, flowers, leaves, paisleys, geometric elements, and so on). She
gives examples of traditional Oriental and "contemporary" colour schemes,
and encourages the reader to experiment with colour by hand-dyeing the

* McGown, Pearl Kinnear. The Lore and Lure of Hooked Rugs. Acton Press
Inc., Acton, Mass. 1966.
        This book is a collection of essays encompassing the recent
history of rug hooking and a showcase of interpretations of the author's
designs. It rubbed me the wrong way when I first read it - I felt that she
was imposing her ideas about colour and design on the reader. However, I
just reread it and really enjoyed it. There are lots of gems of advice on
dyeing and other techniques buried in the text - advice that was
unrecognizable until I had learned the basics. I'd especially recommend it
if you are interested in the tapestry hooking techniques that the McGown
teachers developed.
McLain, Clarisse Cox. (1) Anyone Can Dye. (2) Shading With Swatches. 1962. (3)
The Rug Hooker's Dye Manual. Privately published (Jane Olsen, P.O. Box
351, Hawthorne, CA 90250).
Meilach, Dona Z. Making Contemporary Rugs and Wall Hangings.
Abelard-Schuman, New York, NY. 1970.
     Contains a chapter on how to hook, among *many* other techniques. She
encourages originality of design, which is a treat. I wouldn't recommend
that you follow the harsh cleaning techniques that she suggests.
* Memorial University Art Gallery. The Fabric of Their Lives: hooked and
poked mats of Newfoundland and Labrador. [exhibition catalogue] Art
Gallery, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Nfld. 1980.
     Contains an excellent discussion of the history of rug hooking in
Newfoundland and elsewhere, notes on the rugs shown in the exhibit, and
photos of each rug. A wonderful antidote to the New England focus of many
historical discussions.
Miller, Kris. Introduction To Rug Hooking. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2015. 
Miller, Wendy. Wide Cut Primitive Rug Hooking. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2014.

Minick, Polly. A Rug Hooking Book of Days. Rug Hooking Magazine. 1998.

Minick, Polly and Laurie Simpson. Everyday Folk Art: Hooked Rugs and Quilts To Make. 2005.

Minick, Polly and Laurie Simpson. Victory Girls: Patriotic Quilts & Rugs of WWII. 2011.
Moshimer, Joan (Ed.). Craftsman "Primitive" Guide for Hooked Rugs: A How
To Manual. W. Cushing & Co./Craftsman Studios, Kennebunkport, Maine. 1974,
     Equal parts pattern catalogue and magazine, filled with (many
discontinued) designs, articles, and helpful hints. Many of the excellent
articles are reprinted from The Rug Hooker, News and Views.
* Moshimer, Joan. The Complete Book of Rug Hooking. Dover Publishing Inc.
1989. ISBN 0-486-25945-5. (republication of 3rd edition of The Complete
Rug Hooker: A Guide to the Craft, Leith Publications, Kennebunkport, ME;
1st edition, New York Graphic Society, Boston, MA, 1975.)
     The author is truly one of the giants, with decades of experience as
a hooker, dyer, teacher, designer, and editor, and she has been
instrumental in the current revival of the craft. This book is engagingly
written and filled with excellent advice. It contains: a short history of
rug hooking, focussed on New England; basic how-to directions; excellent
information on dyeing techniques and Cushing's Perfection dyes (which her
company sells), and many dye formulas; advice on hooking different types
of motifs, from geometrics to primitives to finely shaded florals to
pictorials; and suggested projects to help you increase your skills. The
advice she gives on dyeing and shading is especially detailled. Definitely
an industry standard.
* Moshimer, Joan. Hooked On Cats. Stackpole Books, PA. 1991. ISBN
     This book is aimed squarely at the cat lovers among us, with terrific
advice on designing and hooking cat rugs, Cushing's Perfection dye
formulas for cat fur colours, a colour gallery of cat rugs for
inspiration, and a number of projects ranging in difficulty.  However, I
suspect that the author's advice will be equally valuable to anyone
interested in hooking a portrait of a favorite non-feline pet.  You'll
also find basic how-to directions on hooking, dyeing, and finishing
techniques, a glossary of terms, a list of suppliers, and a unique section
on the monetary value of hooked rugs.
Moshimer, Joan. (1) Imari Formulas. (2) Jacobean Formulas.
     Booklets of Cushing's Perfection dye formulas.
* Moshimer, Joan, Ed. The Rug Hooker, News and Views (periodical).
     Absolutely classic, brimming with reprints from out-of-print books,
free designs and excellent articles. The predecessor of Rug Hooking
magazine. I'd love to see someone publish a compilation of these!
Museum of American Folk Art. Hooked rugs in the folk art tradition:
September 19 - November 24, 1974. [exhibition catalogue] Museum of
American Folk Art, New York. 1974. (Joel and Kate Kopp, guest curators)
     A lovely exhibition catalogue.  Fortunately, the photos and text are
all repeated in Kopp & Kopp's book, which is much easier to find.
Neel. I'd Rather Dye Laughing.
Norwood, Cynthia. Creating an Antique Look in Hand Hooked Rugs. 2008.
Norwood, Cynthia. Primitive Hooked Rugs for the 21st Century. Stackpole Press. 2015.
O'Brien, Mildred J. The Rug and Carpet Book. M. Barrows & Co., New York,
NY. 1946.
O'Neill, Edythe. Rugs for My Red Cape. 2001.
Osicka, Sybil. Creative Journey Into Rug Hooking. 2006.
Osicka, Sybil. Soft Is Beautiful, books 1 & 2.
Oxford, Amy. Punch Needle Rug Hooking: Techniques and Designs. Schiffer Publishing. 2007.

Oxford, Amy. Hooked Rugs Today. Schiffer Publishing. 2005.
Parker, Xenia Ley. Hooked Rugs and Ryas. Henry Regnery Company, Chicago.
     Contains one chapter about traditional hand hooking, and many
chapters on latch-hook techniques. Also contains a black-and-white photo
gallery featuring the finest in disco vests and shaggy carpet bags.
Phillips, Anna M. Laise. Hooked Rugs and How to Make Them.. The Macmillan
Co., New York, NY. 1930.
Poole, Shirley. Basic Solutions. (booklet of formulas for Majic Carpet
Pulido, Theresa. Hook, Loop, 'n' Lock: Create Fun & Easy Locker Hooked Projects. 2009.
Pulido, Theresa. Locking Loops: Unique Locker Hooking Handcrafts to Wear and Give. 2011.
Reakes, Lizzie. New Crafts Ragwork. 1996.
Reis, Estelle H. American Rugs. World Publishing Co., Cleveland. 1950.
        Maybe it's just the prissy 1950s' mindset that some so- called
expert had to dictate what is and is not good style, or maybe it's the
unquestioning adherence to W.W.Kent's erroneous theories regarding hooked
rug history - I'm really not sure why I disliked this book so much. It
doesn't even have good photos to redeem it.
Rex, Stella Hay. Choice Hooked Rugs. 1953.
* Rex, Stella Hay. Practical Hooked Rugs, 2nd edition. Cobblesmith,
Ashville, Maine. 1975. (1st edition: Prentice Hall, New York, NY, 1949.)
     Now out of print. Charming, brimming with helpful hints, and, yes,
practical, if a bit dogmatic about appropriate colour schemes to use. also
wrote: By Hook Or By Crook; Choice Hooked Rugs (Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1953).
Rompkey, Richard. Grenfell of Labrador: A Biography. University of Toronto
Press, Toronto, Ont. 1991.
Rowan, Ted and Margaret. Creative Approach to Rug Hooking. Rittermere (now Rittermere-Hurst-Field). 1968.
     Crewel embroidery techniques adapted to rug hooking stitches.

Rug Hooking Magazine. A Rug Hooker's Garden. 2000.
Rug Hooking Magazine. All-Time Favorite Hand-Hooked Rugs. 2010.
* Ryan, Nanette and Wright, Doreen. Garretts and the Bluenose Rugs of Nova
Scotia. Halifax, NS. 1990.
     Gives a balanced and accurate history of the Garretts company,
including the text of a lecture about the company given by Cecil Garrett
to a group of Halifax businessmen in 1927, and a transcript of a
conversation with Cameron Garrett. The text is followed by reprints of
Bluenose Rug patterns taken from the long out-of-print Garretts
catalogues. A fabulous design source. Since these patterns were widely
available through department stores in addition to the mail-order service,
this book may also help you identify the source of your heirloom rugs.
(Contact Spruce Top Rug Hooking Studios to order a copy.)
Sargent, Walter. The Enjoyment and Use of Colour. Dover Publications,
Inc., New York, NY. 1964. (republication of the 1923 edition by Charles
Scribner's Sons)
     Recommended by many other authors as a fine introduction to colour
theory; written with painters in mind, but equally useful for rug design.
Shepherd, Gene, ed. The Rug Hooker's Bible: The Best from 30 Years of Jane Olson's Rugger's Roundtable. 2005.
Shepherd, Gene. Prodded Hooking for a Three-Dimensional Effect. 2008.
Shepherd, Gene. Prepare To Dye: Dyeing Techniques for Fiber Artists. 2013.
Siano, Margaret. The Secrets of Finishing Hooked Rugs. 2003.
Sleeper, Barbara. Analogous Dyeing.
Sopronyi, Judy P. Basic Rug Hooking: All the Skills and Tools You Need to Get Started. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2007.
Sprout. Hooked Rug and Flower Shading.
Sprout, Mildred. How To Dye for Rug Making. 1972.
Stratton, Charlotte K. Rug Hooking Made Easy. Harper & Row, New
York, NY. 1955.
Sugar, Marie. The Complete Natural Dyeing Guide. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2002.

Talant, Helen Cather. My Rug-Hooking World. 1977.
Taylor, Mary Perkins. How To Make Hooked Rugs. David McKay Co.,
Philadelphia. 1930.
Taylor, Judy. Hooking With Yarn. Rug Hooking Magazine. 2003.

Tennant, Emma. Rag Rugs of England and America. Walker Books. 1992.
Terrio, Joan. The Microwave Dye Book and Heather Hues Dye Formulas.
Privately published (P.O. Box 13, Needham, MA 02192). 1981.
     The current wisdom is that microwave dyeing is NOT a safe technique
to use. However, these instructions are written clearly and with good
humour, and the (Cushing's Perfection) dye formulas can be used in more
conventional methods of dyeing. The dye formulas all contain Taupe, and
give "soft and mellow shades".
Turbayne, Jessie A. Hooked Rugs: History and the Continuing Tradition.
Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Westchester, PA. 1991. 
Turbayne, Jessie A. The Hookers' Art: Evolving Designs in Hooked Rugs. Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Westchester, PA. 1993. 
Turbayne, Jessie A. Hooked Rug Treasury. 1997. 

Turbayne, Jessie A. Hooked Rugs of the Deep South. 2011.
Turbayne, Jessie A. The Big Book of Hooked Rugs, 1950s-1980s. 2005.
Tynan, Jean. Dyeing for Primitive Rug Hooking. 1984. Privately published (The
Blue Door, 18585 38th Avenue N., Plymouth, MN 55446).
* Underhill, Vera Bisbee. Creating Hooked Rugs. Coward-McCann, Inc., New
York, NY. 1951. (Now out of print.)
Von Rosenstiel, Helene. American Rugs and Carpets. William Morrow and
Company, Inc., New York, NY. 1978. ISBN 0-688-03325-3.
     A nice historical overview of American floorcoverings from the 17th
century onward, with some detail on rug hooking.  I'm not sure how
accurate the author's information is (she thought the Grenfell and
Cheticamp cottage industries were the same enterprise, for shame!), but it
sure is entertaining. Lots of nifty photos.
Walker, Lydia LeBaron. Homecraft Rugs. Frederick A. Stokes Company, New
York, NY. 1929.
* Waugh, Elizabeth, and Foley, Edith. Collecting Hooked Rugs. The Century
Publishing Co., New York, NY. 1927. (Now out of print.)
     I'm really taken with this book;  it's chock-full of neat stuff.
There are great black & white photos (but too few, alas!); detailled
descriptions of many rugs;  wonderful anecdotes about collecting rugs in
rural Canada and the northeastern States during the Depression;  an
excellent how-to-hook chapter, with descriptions and drawings of many
traditional patterns;  and advice to collectors on what to look for that's
as valuable today as it was in 1927, I'm sure.  This is a marvelous source
of historical information, if you bear in mind that the antiquity of rug
hooking in North America was grossly overestimated at the time.  Wow.
Wilcox, Bettina. Hooked Rugs for Fun and Profit. 1949 pamphlet.
Wiles, Laurilyn. Vermont Folk Rugs.
Wiseman, Ann Sayre. Rags, Rugs, and Wool Pictures. Scribners, New York, NY.
* Wiseman, Ann Sayre. Rag Tapestries and Wool Mosaics. Van Nostrand Reinhold
Co., New York, NY. 1969.
     Has lots of photos, a good technique section using both hand
and speed hooks, and encourages original design. Cool.
Woman's Day. Today's Hooking. 1942 pamphlet.
Wright, Kathy and Judy Knipe. Rug Hooking Traditions with Patty Yoder and Esther Knipe. Self-published. 2014.
Yoder, Patty. The Alphabet of Sheep. 2003.
Young, Arthur. (1) America Gets Hooked. (2) The Lyrics of Fiber. Booksplus
of Maine, Lewiston, ME.
* Zarbock, Barbara J. The Complete Book of Rug Hooking. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., New York, NY. 1961. 2nd edition, 1969.
     The history section is rather reliant on those awful Kent theories,
and the information is a little dated in places, but overall - I love this
book!  The author encourages originality of design, and includes sections
on materials, equipment, techniques for hooking and finishing rugs, colour
planning, dyeing, and ideas for small projects. There's a chapter on
teaching that includes a suggested lesson plan, and a chapter on the use
of speed hooks. The book is illustrated with plenty of sketches, and
photos in both colour and black-and-white.
Znamierowski, Nell. Step-by-Step Rugmaking. Golden Press, New York, NY.
...and finally, the books with no author...
* ATHA: Newsletter of the Association of Traditional Hooking Artists.
(periodical) Association of Traditional Hooking Artists.
     A subscription to this magazine-length newsletter is included in your
membership in ATHA. The recent issues I've seen are reminiscent of the old
"Rug Hooker: News and Views": lots of ads for suppliers and privately
published books, lots of tips and articles, free designs, and loads of
announcements and reports from different regions.
* A Celebration of Hand-Hooked Rugs. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.
to present
     An annual series, edited by the staff of Rug Hooking Magazine,
showcasing the work of hookers, and including advice on technique.
Brimming with gorgeous colour photos.
Diamond Dye Rug Book. Wells and Richardson Co., Montreal, PQ. 1899.
Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions microfiche series,
pre-1900 Canadiana, (c) 1982, no. 01194.
     Only of interest to history buffs. The text describes how to hook,
plugs the company's wares, and includes brief and vague descriptions of
the patterns. The colour plates are largely unreadable.
Hooked rugs, a Canadian tradition: exhibition held at the Ottawa Public
Library, 2-30 July 1975. [exhibition catalogue]. 1975.
* Newsletter. (periodical)  National Guild of Pearl K. McGown Rug Hookrafters,
Inc. ISSN 0279-7194.
        A subscription to this magazine-length newsletter is included in
your membership in the McGown guild. In addition to the handful of
announcements and chapter reports (but no ads!), each issue follows a
theme for the many tips, articles, and designs (at least since Nancy Blood
became editor - I've not seen older issues). For example, the April 1995
issue featured instructions for a number of creative stitches, patterns
that use those stitches, and descriptions of how folks had adapted
conventional patterns to incorporate the techniques. I'm really impressed
by the amount of information packed into these pages! Wow!
* Rug Hooking. (periodical) Stackpole Inc.
     Published five times a year. Rug Hooking is the only contemporary
magazine dedicated to hand-hooked rugs, and I can't heap enough praise on
the recent issues that I've seen. Each issue contains advice, free
patterns, a column on dyeing, listings of current events and upcoming
schools and workshops, informative ads from both major and more obscure
suppliers, and feature articles on tantalizing new techniques with
inspiring colour photos. A lot of the giants and experts in the field are
on the editorial board. Fabulous source of information!
* The Rug Hooking Magazine Sourcebook. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg,
PA. 1992.
     This book is a fantastic idea! It contains alphabetical listings of
every rug hooker who asked to be listed in the "white pages"; an
alphabetical listing of teachers, a geographical listing of teachers, and
an alphabetical listing of guilds, gatherings, and penpals in the "pink
pages"; and a listing of suppliers and designers by category (a
*brilliant* idea) in the "yellow pages". The publishers clearly intended
to update the Sourcebook yearly - unfortunately they haven't, so many of
the listings given in this edition are out of date. I still think it's a
valuable resource! Here's hoping they do update it soon. 
Print has been superceded by the Rug Hooking Magazine website's listings.

DISCLAIMER: This list is not an endorsement on my part, I don't
work for any of these folks, and I'm not doing this for profit. I
cannot accept any responsibility for what these people may or may
not do with your hard-earned money; all risks are yours.
.. That said, it's my hope that this list will help you get in
touch with the experts, suppliers, teachers, and designers you
want to find. 

[Contents of the 1994-5 address book omitted as they are no longer accurate and have been superceded by the advent of websites, or the World Wide Web as we called it back in the day. In their place, I am appending current links to the websites of the major rug hooking guilds, and Rug Hooking Magazine, with notes about which resources they link to, plus a handful of resources local to me in Western Canada. - ed.]

Association of Traditional Rug Hooking Artists (ATHA) - hold biennial meetings in addition to the monthly meetings of 78 chapters around the world, and their Hooking Resources page is an extensive list of suppliers and schools 

National Guild of Pearl K. McGown Hookrafters - legendary teacher training with a deep history, and a comprehensive searchable list of instructors

Ontario Hooking Craft Guild - also check their Resources page for lists of forums and suppliers

Rug Hooking Guild of Nova Scotia (Note: RHGNS includes groups in NB & PEI, run a renowned annual school, and lists many resources including suppliers on their Links page) 

Rug Hooking Magazine (Stackpole Press) - all the suppliers advertise in their pages, and most schools and local hook-ins are listed on their Events And Gatherings page

The International Guild of Handhooking Rugmakers (TIGHR) hold triennial meetings, created International Hook-In Day (Dec 4th), and can help connect rugmakers with guilds, suppliers, and teachers from outside the USA and Canada. Their site's sidebar includes other guilds and the websites of their artist-designer-instructor members.

in Western Canada:

Prairie Harvest Rug Hooking School (Saskatoon, SK) include other Western Canadian groups on their Links page

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